Site name and code: Bory Niemodlińskie PLH160005
Site of Community importance since 2011
Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Opole county – municipality of Dąbrowa, Niemodlin, Tułowice; Brzeg county – municipality of Lewin Brzeski; Nysa county – municipality of Łambinowice
The site of Niemodlin Coniferous Forests is a large complex of forest that stretches on corrugated and flat glacial upland cut up by river valleys and it is situated between the valleys of the Nysa Kłodzka (GIatzer Neisse) and the Oder river. Glaciofluvial plains and denudation monadnocks diversify both the groups of dunes, which measure up to 15 m, and closed depressions where bog woodlands and peat bogs are located. The greater part of the refugium is forested, mainly by forests of an economic nature, among which there are also numerous fragments of native forests. Among forests there are large pond complexes with characteristic of these ecosystems vegetation associations and the wetland fauna. Larger complexes of meadow communities are found in the river valleys, including the Ścinawa Niemodlińska and the Wytoka river and their tributaries. The area is a part of a large dense forest complex whose western part is characterized by great diversity of habitats, from dry habitats on the dunes to extremely humid peat bogs and ponds. At the same time the nature of land development and numerous zones of discontinuity in occurring habitats make it necessary to delimitate refugium in several sub-areas, not connected to each other spatially.
The subjects of protection
6410 Intermittently wet Molinia meadows (Molinion)
6510 Lowland and mountain fresh meadows used extensively (Arrhenatherion elatioris)
7110 Raised peat bogs with peat forming vegetation (active)
7120 Degraded raised peat bogs still capable of natural and stimulated regeneration
7140 Transition mires and quaking bogs (mostly with vegetation from Scheuchzerio-Caricetea)
7150 Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion vegetation
9110 Acidophilousbeech forests (Luzulo-Fagion)
9170 Central European and subcontinental oak-hornbeam forests (Gallo-Carpinetum, Tilio-Carpinetum)
9190 Old acidophilous oak woods (Quercetea robori-petraeae)
91D0 Bog woodland
91E0 Riparian forests with willow, poplar alder and ash (Salicetum albo-fragilis, Populetum albae, Alnenion glutinoso-incanae, alder headwaters)
91F0 Riparian mixed forests of oak, elm, ash (Ficario-Ulmetum)
Barbastelle Bat Barbastella barbastellus
Pond bat Myotis dasycneme
Greater mouse-eared bat Myotis myotis
Eurasian otter Lutra lutra
Great crested newt Triturus cristatus
Fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina
A description of the subjects of protection within the site
The complex of transition mires, quaking bogs and raised peat bogs are of particular importance in Natura 2000 site as they are one of the last surviving complexes of this type in the Opole voivodeship. Peat bogs are accompanied by bog forests which have a priority, and by large areas of oak-hornbeam forests. What is worth emphasizing is rich vertebral fauna, with three species of bats from the Annex II of the Habitats Directive, whose habitats are associated with abundant water reservoirs and oak-hornbeam old-growth forests. Niemodlin Coniferous Forests are one of the most diverse lowlands in Natura 2000 sites in Opole voivodeship, and that is because of the occurrence of twelve habitats. The presence of numerous crested newts and fire-bellied toads in the area is also noteworthy. Two Nature Reserves are situated inside the site, i.e. Prądy Nature Reserve and Gold Wetlands Nature Reserve.
….. Fire-bellied toad is abundantly occurring amphibian in the site of Niemodlin Coniferous Forests. When disturbed, they will often flip themselves over completely and arch their back to reveal the bright red-and-black coloration of their underside.
….. Despite the fact that the great crested newt is a species of the amphibian with one of the largest acreages occurrence in Europe, its numbers are still falling. The factor contributing to this is frequently changing environment, in particular backfilling water reservoirs, drainage and deterioration of water quality. The great crested newt is called this way for the dramatic, jagged crest that males develop along their backs during the spring breeding season.
….. Raised peat bogs are greatly humid habitats for certain species of plants, including sphagnum moss. Peat bogs accumulate decayed vegetation and deposit not decomposable biomass. It was determined that raised peat bogs grow this way by approximately 1 mm. annually.