Site name and code: Forty Nyskie PLH160001
Special Area of Conservation
Site of Community importance since 2007
Area: 55,4 ha
Administrative location: Nysa county – municipality of Nysa.
Within its borders the site includes parts of Nysa Forts: Prusy Fort and Królicza Redoubt, the place for wintering bats. It is one of the most important places for barbastelle bat hibernation in Silesia. Special microclimate is characteristic for this fortifications, it creates favorable conditions for wintering of some bat species, and due to the architectural diversity, species with different temperature preferences are found here. Within the forts also other species of bats – Geoffroy’s bat, greater mouse-eared bat, Bechstein’s bat and the lesser horseshoe bat were found. The complex of eighteenth-century defensive construction is located in today’s park, constituting recreational and walking areas for residents of the city. The area surrounding the buildings at the turn of the XIX and XX century was considered useless for military purposes, and therefore vegetation began to naturally encroach upon its territory, which then led to oak-hornbeam forest stand – the natural habitat also protected within the site.
The subjects of protection
9170 Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests
1308 Barbastella barbastellus
1321 Myotis emarginatus
A description of the subjects of protection within the site
Wintering in fortifications species of bats are the most important natural values of the site. Thermal and climatic conditions (low temperature and good ventilation) allow for wintering of barbastelle bat in the basement. This important place for wintering species collects, according to data from winter counts conducted in 2008-2012, up to 139 individuals, and on average there are about 100 of them. Studies on species within the work on the development of the protection tasks draft has shown that a relatively large population of barbastelle bats find convenient conditions for wintering, but facilities in which it hibernates are easily accessible, which could adversely affect its state of preservation. Also the technical condition of buildings requiring maintenance is a threat to the habitat.
Geoffroy’s bat hibernates in forts in very small numbers, not finding suitable microclimate conditions here.
The habitat of oak-hornbeam forests surrounding the fortress is not only a valuable natural habitat, but also a breeding place for wintering in fortifications Barbastelle bats. It is also important ecological component, providing connectivity to other feeding grounds for this species. Due to its location within the city, the area is penetrated in an uncontrolled manner by people also on motor vehicles. This conduces the penetration of alien species of plants, littering and unnecessary fertilization of the habitat.
… during hibernation body temperature of bats varies only 1-2 ° C from ambient temperature. Each waking up from hibernation is for a bat very intense energetic exertion therefore hibernating animals should not be bothered. Waking up during the winter season is the cause of starvation.