Site name and code: Grądy Odrzańskie PLB020002
Special Protection Areas since 2004
Area: 19999.28 ha
Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Opole county – municipality of Dąbrowa, municipality of Dobrzeń Wielki, municipality of Popielów; Brzeg county – municipality of Lewin Brzeski, municipality of Skarbimierz, the city of Brzeg, municipality of Lubsza; Lower Silesia voivodeship: Oława county – municipality of Oława, the city of Oława, municipality of Jelcz Laskowice, Wrocław county – municipality of Siechnice, municipality of Czernica, the city of Wrocław
The special protection area for birds Grądy Odrzańskie is located in the Continental biogeographic region in Central Europe. It is mainly situated in woodlands and agricultural areas. It stretches along the Odra valley, within the 70-km section between Narok and Wrocław. The area includes parts of the Lower Silesia and Opole voivodeship. The south-eastern part of the refugium located in the Opole voivodeship extends as a narrower belt in two counties: Opole and Brzeg. The most southern part of the refugium is located in the Opole county in southern parts of municipalities of: Popielów and Dobrzeń Wielki, and the northern periphery of the municipality of Dąbrowa. In the Brzeg county the refuge is located within the municipality of Lubsza, a rural municipality of Lewin Brzeski and municipalities of Brzeg and Skarbimierz. The remaining area located in Lower Silesia is located within the county of Oława, Wrocław and the city of Wroclaw. In the Oława county, the refugium is located in the southern range of the urban-rural municipality of Jelcz-Laskowice, and in the northern part of the rural and urban municipalities of Oława. Within the Wrocław county, the refugium is located in the north-eastern part of the urban-rural municipality of Siechnice and along the southern border of the municipality of Czernica. The northernmost part of the site appears in the area of the county and municipality of Wrocław. The area is located within the Silesia – Opole depression, the northern part of the area is placed within the Fore-Sudetic monocline. From the west it borders the Tertiary fault-zones of the middle Oder. But from south it enters the range of the pre-tertiary outcrop. The area of the refugium is located within the I° ordering Oder river drainage basin and within the II° ordering Oder and Nysa Kłodzka (GIatzer Neisse) drainage basins, the rivers of III° ordering drainage basin are: the Oder and Nysa Kłodzka (GIatzer Neisse), Widawa and Stobrawa. The larger tributaries of the Oder flowing in the area of the refugium are: the Oława, Smortawa, Kotowice Tributary, Zakrzów Channel, Krzywula, Piskorna, Żydówka, Brzezina, Bystrzyca Channel, Młynówka Jelecka, Otocznica, Polderowski. Within the refugium there are many smaller watercourses and ditches forming quite dense network.
The subjects of protection
A description of the subjects of protection within the site
Some of the most interesting species of birds inhabiting the area are the red and black kite, which are generally associated with river valleys. These birds belong to the so-called group of Falconiformes, which hunts other organisms, in this case mainly fish, amphibians, small mammals and birds. Another interesting species occurring in the area is the collared flycatcher, which is closely related to another species of indigenous The European pied flycatcher. This bird has a contrasting white and black coloration which is an uncommon phenomenon in Polish avifauna. Particularly noteworthy within the area is the occurrence of middle spotted and grey-headed woodpecker. The middle spotted woodpecker belongs to the so-called variegated group of woodpeckers, which also feature a contrasting white and black coloration. The only element having a different color is the top of the head (the so-called cap) and undertail which are red. The middle spotted woodpecker is a species characteristic of the old oak forests, in contrast to the gray-headed woodpecker, which inhabits mainly riverine riparian forests. The gray-headed woodpecker has a very interesting mating call, which for those not familiar with the species sounds like the melodious whistles. Bean Goose is one of the migratory species that can be found in the area in spring and autumn when it migrates to the breeding places (Northern Russia) or wintering (the south and west of Europe). Increasingly, bean goose can be found even in winter, which may be the evidence of global warming in the central part of the Continent. Within the area there are also other rare species of birds e.g. the white-tailed eagle, black stork and crane.
….. to determine, among others, red and black kite as birds of prey is a statement highly imprecise, since most birds could be included in this group: for example, tits and woodpeckers also feed on other animals (insects). The most accurate definition of birds actively hunting other animals using claws is Falconiformes.
….. the black kite is one of the most widely inhabited and most numerous Falconiformes on the planet. Unfortunately, in Europe, this species is very small and the acreage of its occurrence is still decreasing .
….. the bean geese overcome huge distances between breeding and wintering grounds. It has been established that these birds are able to migrate few or several thousand kilometers. Among the goose it is a relatively well known phenomenon because the birds mainly migrate during the day, in large flocks in a specific V-formation.