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Łąki w okolicach Kluczborka nad Stobrawą – EN

Site name and code:          Łąki w okolicach Kluczborka nad Stobrawą PLH160013

Site of Community Importance since 2011

Area: 356,65 ha

Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Kluczbork county – municipality of Kluczbork, municipality of Wołczyn.

Maculinea nausithous

The area is located west of Kluczbork (but still in its administrative boarders), along the river Stobrawa. The site includes communities of periodically mown meadows with sorrels, bistort, fireweed, sedges and reed canary grass and great burnet. More waterlogged parts are overgrown with reeds. Some places are deformed with a large share of nettles. Fragments of the eastern and south-eastern parts are overgrown in places with tree stand consisting of pedunculate, black alder and willows. The Stobrawa with the flow of pure water is risen by a small lock on the eastern border of meadows. The valley bed is lined with alluvial soils and silts locally. Water table varies between 0.5-1.0 m throughout large area of the site.

The common frog is a common amphibian species of meadows. Reptiles are represented by the grass snake. From occurring birds it is worth mentioning lark, western yellow wagtail, meadow pipits and peewit. White stork, rook, starling and rodent-hunting kestrel fly down the meadows. Mammals are represented among others by hare and roe deer, although they are not too frequent. Invertebrate fauna is rich. There are large quantities of burgundy snails and amber snails (Succinella), and numerous species of spiders, including wasp spider.

During flowering, plant species growing within the site are visited by different species of butterflies and hymenopteras.

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Lycaena dispar

The subjects of protection

Animal species:

Lycaena dispar

Maculinea nausithous

Lycaena helle (planned to be under protection)

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A description of the subjects of protection within the site

Lycaena dispar

The family of gossamer-winged butterflies, which includes all protected items in the Łąki w okolicach Kluczborka nad Stobrawą Natura 2000 site, owes its name to the color of wings of some members of the family. They are small daily butterflies, occurring in almost all terrestrial environments. In case of dusky and scarce large blue an important part of their environment are meadows where they occur. These should include meadows used extensively i.e. mowed up to once a year. Large Copper is a species closely connected to the territories situated in the coastal part of small rivers and ditches where there are the host plants of the genus sorrel Rumex. Violet copper is a species also associated with water-meadows and the presence of bistort, which is the only host plant for this species in our latitude.

The main threat to the existence of protected species is a change of the meadows use to agricultural land and water amelioration. Plowing meadows leads to the destruction of host plants for the butterflies , but also to withdraw from the habitats species of ants, which are an essential element of butterflies full development. Intensively conducted water amelioration is the biggest threat for coppers, by the removal and destruction of host plants it reduces the possibility of this species occurrence.

 

More facts:

….. Łąki w okolicach Kluczborka nad Stobrawą and Łąki w okolicach Karłowic nad Stobrawą Natura 2000 sites are linked by the river. The Stobrawa is one of the most picturesque rivers of Silesia. Its course once marked the boundary between so-called Upper and Origin (now called Lower Silesia) Silesia.

….. both above mentioned sites are also linked by the historical figure of a priest Jan Dzierżon, who is considered to be a mentor of all beekeepers. Jan Dzierżon was born near Kluczbork, then he took the rectory in Karłowice. Throughout his life he was beekeeping, improving methods of keeping these useful to human insects

….. violet copper is a species of butterfly, which is going to be under protection within the site. An interesting fact in biology is that males of this species have a strong territorial behavior. Flying down on parts of a plant they can drive away the other members of their species, and even other insects. In case of mass occurrence of violet copper there is a fight between males, it can resemble birds flights within a tooting-ground. It is worth mentioning that population of violet copper in Opole is considerably detached from the compact range of distribution, which covers areas to the east of the Wisła river.