Site name and code: Rozumicki Las PLH160018
Special Area of Conservation
Site of Community importance since 2011
Area: 96,6 ha
Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Głubczyce county – municipality of Kietrz.
The site of Community importance Rozumicki Las is one of the most important forest ecosystems in the Opole Silesia. The condition of its plant communities is very good, flora is extremely rich and natural. The high nature value is determined by well-developed communities and by one of the richest communities of Hacquetia epipactis in Poland. Southern and eastern border of the site runs along the edge of the forest complex along the border of the country. The forest borders here with many-dimensional arable land occurring in the Czech Republic. Other boundaries within the country also run along the border of fields and forest. The area constituting the Natura 2000 site in all available historical sources is described and depicted as a forest. There are no historical sources known to indicate that in the past the area wasn’t forested. Old maps of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries show that the state of forests in the Głubczyce Plateau was very similar to today’s. It can be assumed that for the last several hundred years Rozumicki Forest has had a similar area and has been surrounded by farmland. Las Rozumicki is an isolated forest complex located in the southern part of the Opole Silesia on the border with the Czech Republic. The forest occurs on a fragment of glacial plateau structurally covered with loess-like and boulder clay. The area is characterized by a great diversity of terrain. The dominant drops are 10-15%, height differences reach 15 meters. Within the forest complex the upland is dissected with deep valleys.
The subjects of protection
9170 Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests
9190 Old acidophilous oak woods with Quercus robur on sandy plains
91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)
91F0 Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris)
A description of the subjects of protection within the site
It is very important site in terms of phytosociology, it is largely covered by well-developed communities of subcontinental oak-hornbeam forest Tilio-Carpinetum with most characteristic taxa. Also, other types of vegetation, and in particular sub-montane riparian ash Carici remotae-Fraxinetum and acidophilous sub-montane oak forest Molinio arundinaceae Quercetum are plant peculiarities of national importance. Flora is also rich within the site, because there are approx. 20 endangered or subject to legal protection species.
….. one of the valuable plant species occurring in Rozumickim Las is Hacquetia epipactis. The Latin name of this plant is given after the traveler and naturalist Baltazar Hacquet, who is considered a precursor of mountaineering. Polish name Cieszynianka refers to a legend stating that the seeds were brought to Cieszyn Silesia during the Thirty Years War by Swedish badly wounded soldier. Shortly before his death he asked the locals to sprinkle the ground from the bag, hung on his neck by his mother, on his grave. According to this story the first plant that flowered on his grave was Hacquetia.
….. most beautifully flowering plants in the habitat of oak-hornbeam forest occur even before the leaves of trees. Such plants are called geophytes since their early appearance is adapted to the light conditions prevailing in the forest. At the time when the leaves almost completely take daylight, geophytes become non-active in the underground organs such as rhizomes, tubers and bulbs.
….. within the Rozumicki Las Natura 2000 there is an archaeological site – burial mound dating back to the early medieval period. In addition, within the area there are remnants of trenches, not being under conservation, probably from the period of World War II.