Site name and code: Opolska Dolina Nysy Kłodzkiej PLH160014
Site of Community importance since 2011
Area: 1439,64 ha
Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Opole county – municipality of Niemodlin; Brzeg county – municipality of Lewin Brzeski, municipality of Olszanka and municipality of Grodków
Opolska Dolina Nysy Kłodzkiej Natura 2000 site extends along the Nysa Kłodzka, from the vicinity of Michałów to Ptakowice. The main part of the site are woodlands located west of the river bed. The area includes flat Nysa Kłodzka floodplain and fragments of terraces beyond the floodplain. The valley is lined with alluvial soils which are underlaid by alluvial fluvioglacial sand and gravel. At the thill there are Miocene clays. Its terrain is flat, with oxbow lakes and small depressions locally present. The river bed is strongly indented in base-level of erosion. The refugium prevails well developed Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forest. The Nysa Kłodzka bed preserves its natural character. Due to the compact nature of the habitat found mainly in forests and due to the spatial isolation of the complexes, three parts of the refugium have been created. The main consists of complexes adjacent to the river bed along with a short section of a link between them along the river. The other two are isolated and include forest complex near Żelazna and Ptakowice.
The subjects of protection
3150 Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition – type vegetation
9170 Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests
9190 Old acidophilous oak woods with Quercus robur on sandy plains
91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)
91F0 Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris)
A description of the subjects of protection within the site
Piedmont like, well-formed and preserved river valley is of the main environmental value within the site. Part of Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests of the refugium is very well preserved. Large part of them are stands over 150 years old. In addition to oak-hornbeam forests there are also well preserved patches of Ficario-Ulmetum alluvial forests and riparian forests of willow. Both habitats are known as priority habitats, i.e. their preservation and conservation is particularly important for countries of the Community because they are in danger of disappearance in the Member States of the European Union. Along the riverbed there are also natural eutrophic reservoirs and oxbow lakes, the occurrence of which is partly related to natural inundations of the Nysa Kłodzka river.
….. The Nysa Kłodzka is one of the biggest (approx. 180 km long) tributary of the Oder. The river is still not regulated throughout most sections, forming a picturesque landscape.
….. lack of riverbed regulation often causes sandy slopes to expose, they are a breeding place for birds digging burrows. Such birds are, e.g. sand martin, which is a species of swallows, its name is taken from the breeding grounds. The second species digging burrows in the sandy slopes is common kingfisher. This very beautiful bird owes its name to the distinctive way of putting nests.
….. within the refuge there are two nature reserves, i.e. Dębina Nature Reserve and Kokorycz Nature Reserve. In both reserves there are protected old oak-hornbeam stands, with numerous protected species of plants, including wild garlic. Wild garlic is a close relative of garlic and has similar therapeutic and culinary properties. However, it is important to remember that picking and digging it up is prohibited.