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Przyłęk nad Białą Głuchołaską – EN

Site name and code:          Przyłęk nad Białą Głuchołaską PLH160016

Special Area of Conservation

Site of Community importance since 2011

Area: 166,0 ha

Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Opole county – municipalities of Głuchołazy and municipalities of Nysa.

Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests

The site includes a natural part of the Biała Głuchołaska river together with surrounding willow thicket, riparian and oak-hornbeam forests. The area is a flat floodplain on the west turning into terraces beyond the floodplain and glacial upland. At the bottom of the valley there are alluvial soils and silts in local depressions. The river bed is piedmont like and locally braided. The site is mostly covered with forest communities. The refugium is located in the transition zone between Opawskie Mountains and the lowlands of Ziemia Nyska. The site is environmentally  valuable due to the presence of well-preserved oak-hornbeam forests transitioning between subcontinental and Central European.

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Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior

The subjects of protection

Natural habitats:

9170 Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests

91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

91F0 Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris)

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A description of the subjects of protection within the site

Riparian mixed forests

The Przyłęk nad Białą Głuchołaską Natura 2000 site is characterized by well-preserved oak-hornbeam forests transitioning between subcontinental (Tilio-Carpinetum) and Central European (Galio-Carpinetum). A natural border between the two subtypes of oak-hornbeam forests runs in the Opole voivodeship. Additionally, in the vicinity of oak-hornbeam forests there are well-preserved patches of riparian oak-elm-ash Ficario-Ulmetum. The riverbed of Biała Głuchołaska in the refugium is subject to natural geomorphological processes. In the vicinity of the river there are preserved patches of riparian willow forests closely related to periodic changes in the river water level. The whole forest complex is compact and monadnock like. The Przyłęk nad Białą Głuchołaską Natura 2000 site is also a habitat of interesting species of birds, and the section adjacent to the river is a permanent habitat of otters.

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More facts:

….. the Biała Głuchołaska riverhead can be found at the foot of Pradziad in the Czech Republic. Pradziad is the highest peak of the East Sudetes, recognized as the highest peak of the historic Upper Silesia. The Biała Głuchołaska flows into the Zbiornik Nyski, which is also a subject to legal protection as a Special Protection Area for birds.

….. the Biała Głuchołaska river belongs to the so-called grayling land. Grayling is a coldwater fish occurring only in very clean waters. Sexual dimorphism is characteristic for the species, which distinguish by a long and colorful dorsal fin in males (especially visible during the spawning season).

….. the major threat to the site is the presence and continuous spread of invasive plant species of the knotweed genus. Knotweed species spread rapidly along watercourses because their seeds are dispersed by water (hydrochoria). An additional problem with them is the fact that these plants form an extensive and deep-rooted rhizomes. Interestingly, knotweed were brought to Europe from the Far East (Asia) as ornamental and melliferous plants. It turned out, however, that the plants spread very quickly and effectively threatening native flora.