Site name and code: Zbiornik Turawa PLB160004
Special Area of Birds Protection since 2008
Administrative location: Opole voivodeship: Opole county – municipality of Turawa
The site is a large water retention reservoir on the Small Panew river, mostly surrounded by forests. The second river outflowing into the reservoir is Libawa. The reservoir was placed into service just before World War II, in 1938. The reservoir was built to control the water level on the Odra river, adapting it to the navigability parameters. Another reason for the construction was to regulate waterways of the Mała Panew river, which were very often causing floods in nearby villages. The western and partially southern shore are embanked. The edges of the northern and eastern part are covered with abovewater vegetation, mainly great manna grass Glyceria maxima and willow thickets. In this part of the reservoir there are also recreation centers, mostly seasonal. There are significant fluctuations in the water level. The maximum depth of the basin is approx. 13 meters. At low water in the eastern part of the reservoir, large patches of sandy and muddy bed are exposed.
The subjects of protection
Shoveler Anas clypeata
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
Bean Goose Anser fabalis
Little Stint Calidris minuta
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus
Black Tern Chlidonias Niger
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
A description of the subjects of protection within the site
There are at least 24 species of birds listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive within the site. Based on data from the years 1995-2003, the reservoir meets the criteria of C4, C3 and C6 bird refugium of European importance (IBA of EU Importance) according to BirdLife International. Zbiornik Turawski is an important site for migratory wetland birds, the size of the Anatidae family on overflights and during winter could reach 25 thousands individuals. During the migration, there is at least 1% of the mallard population, also relatively large concentrations are achieved by common teal, little stint, dunlin and common snipe. Shoveler and black-necked grebe are breeding species that are objects of protection within the site. The reservoir is also one of the most important national breeding grounds for whiskered tern. This species has relatively recently colonized the area of Poland and in the last two decades has been strongly spreading across the country, settling in new habitats. For the first time whiskered tern was nesting within the site in 2001.
….. for the reservoir construction purposes the villages Zamoście and Krzyślina together with the hamlet Luke and Pustków belonging to Szczedrzyk were displaced. Especially for the displaced there was a housing estate built in Ligota Turawska that exists to this day and it is of a characteristic so called Prussian construction.
….. Zbiornik Turawa is often mistakenly called Jezioro Turawskie. During the holiday season it is a popular leisure destination for many people of Opole, as well as residents of Upper Silesia.
….. The Shoveler takes its name after the characteristic, highly flattened beak. Flat beak is used to filter out phyto and zooplankton, which it feeds on. Due to the specific requirements as to the amount of plankton it needs, the shoveler occupies watersides or shallow, densely vegetated bodies of water.
….. mallard’s Latin name means exactly shoveler! Interestingly, Carolus Linnaeus, who is considered the father of modern taxonomy, originally male and female mallard described as two distinct species! Polish origin of the name of this duck is not fully known, maybe its name comes from the possibility of free interbreeding with other species of ducks, even outside of its kind.